Energy Drinks and Their Adverse Health Effects
Ibrahim M Nadeem, Ajaykumar Shanmugaraj, Seaher Sakha, Nolan S Horner, Olufemi R Ayeni, Moin KhanSports Health 2020 November 19, : 1941738120949181
CONTEXT: Energy drinks are the fastest growing product in the beverage industry. However, there is concern regarding potential for adverse effects with use.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reported adverse effects of energy drink consumption.
DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for relevant studies from inception to November 2019, and pertinent data were abstracted.
STUDY SELECTION: Only clinical studies reporting adverse events after energy drink consumption were included.
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4.
DATA EXTRACTION: Data regarding sample size characteristics, energy drink characteristics, comparators, and all adverse events were extracted in duplicate and recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 32 studies and 96,549 individuals were included. Frequently reported adverse events in the pediatric population were insomnia (35.4%), stress (35.4%), and depressive mood (23.1%). Frequently reported adverse events in the adult population were insomnia (24.7%), jitteriness/restlessness/shaking hands (29.8%), and gastrointestinal upset (21.6%). Alcohol mixed with energy drinks significantly reduced the likelihood of sedation effects but increased the likelihood of stimulatory effects. Energy drink consumption significantly increased the odds of insomnia (OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 1.72-14.63) and jitteriness/activeness (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.28-9.67) compared with the control group.
CONCLUSION: The authors recommend that individuals avoid frequent energy drink consumption (5-7 energy drinks/week) and avoid co-consumption with alcohol; increased regulatory standards should be placed in the sale of energy drinks, particularly with regard to the pediatric population.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE: https://read.qxmd.com/read/33211984/energy-drinks-and-their-adverse-health-effects-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis?fbclid=IwAR35_O-5wcY78YcN58Ng1zDSz8sGJU2Y1IkRCOwPvMDKMGZyOtYL1yYtnHQ