Defining the Problem
Appearance and Performance Enhancing Substances, also known as performance enhancing drugs (PEDs), are substances used to improve any form of activity, performance and/or appearance in humans. These substances range from an array of medical disciplines and related fields, and are associated with numerous, potentially serious, physical and psychiatric side effects. While these substances have a long history in sport and competition, studies have found millions of teenagers are also turning to them with the idea that they will improve their physical appearance as well as athletic performance.
Some of the substances that fall under this category are things like anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), human growth hormone (hGH), dietary supplements and even energy drinks.